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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-20

A comparative study of caudal bupivacaine and midazolam for post operative analgesia in pediatric patients

Department of Anaesthesiology, Guntur Medical College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
T Venugopalarao
4-19-117, 5th Line, Vikasnagar, Guntur - 522 007
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.94170

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Background: Postoperative discomfort that arises from pain is annoying for the child and parents. Genital and perineal surgical procedures are followed by moderate to severe pain resulting in postoperative complications like infection and also long term psychological effects on children. Under treatment of children for pain in post operative period has been reported in several centers. Intramuscular or intravenous analgesics have unpredictable effects and not accepted by children. Caudal bupivacaine with midazolam prolongs post operative pain relief. Aim: To evaluate the relative efficacy and duration of caudal extradural bupivacaine 0.25% and a combination of bupivacaine and midazolam for intra and post operative analgesia. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 50 ASA I children from pediatric surgery department requiring general anaesthesia for infra umbilical surgeries. After induction of general anaesthesia the children were given caudal extradural 1 ml/kg bupivacaine (0.25%) or bupivacaine with midazolam (0.50 micromg/kg) intra operative vitals, response to surgical stimulus measured. Post operatively assessment of pain was done by using objective pain score up to 24 hrs in the ward. Results: The mean basal values of systolic blood pressure in both the group were comparable intraoperatively and didn't show any statistical significance indicating adequate analgesia intra operatively. Postoperatively 68% children in the bupivacaine group were pain free until 3 hours as compared to 80% children in bupivacaine with midazolam. Only 4% children in bupivacaine group were pain free until 6 hours post operatively, compared to 72% children in bupivacaine with midazolam indicating prolonged analgesia in this group. There was no significant changes hemo- dynamically in both groups post operatively. Conclusion: Caudal extradural analgesia with bupivacaine and midazolam gives prolonged analgesia postoperatively and can be used safely in children. It will also reduce the use of parenteral analgesics significantly with minimum side effects.

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