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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 23-27

Estimation of salivary immunoglobulin A levels in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients before and after phase I periodontal therapy

1 Department of Periodontics, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Rajah Muthiah Dental College & Hospital, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Triveni Institute of Dental Sciences, Hospital & Research Centre, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Kalakonda Butchibabu
Department of Periodontics, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.128486

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Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the saliva of healthy controls and patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 male adult patients, of 20-50 age group who were grouped into three different groups viz. Group A (healthy subjects), Group B (Gingivitis), Group C (Periodontitis) based on clinical parameters. The clinical parameters including plaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), Russell's periodontal index (PI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and serum IgA levels were recorded at baseline in Group A and at baseline and after 4 weeks in Group B and C. Levels of salivary IgA were measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) technique after collecting 5 ml of unstimulated pooled saliva from patients in two different samples. Results: There was a significant reduction in salivary IgA levels, PlI, GI and PPD after phase I periodontal therapy in Group B and C; whereas a decrease in Russell's PI and gain in the CAL after phase I periodontal therapy were not statistically significant in Group C (periodontitis) patients. Salivary IgA levels, PlI, GI, and Russell's PI were significantly lower in the Group A (control) patients compared with Group B (gingivitis) and Group C (periodontitis) patients. Conclusion: Our study showed increased levels of salivary IgA in patients with periodontal disease compared with the healthy controls. The less severe the periodontal involvement, the more dependable was the reduction in IgA concentration following phase I periodontal therapy.

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