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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-85

A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease

1 Intern, NRI Academy of Medical Sciences, Chinakakani, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Oral Surgery, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Ravi Teja Chitturi
Department of Oral Pathology, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur - 522 509, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.158577

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Elements are present in different forms in the nature, and these elements are very essential for the body to perform different functions. Trace elements are very important for cell functions at biological, chemical and molecular levels. These elements mediate vital biochemical reactions by acting as cofactors for many enzymes, as well as act as centers for stabilizing structures of enzymes and proteins. Some of the trace elements control important biological processes by binding to molecules on the receptor site of cell membrane or by alternating the structure of membrane to prevent entry of specific molecules into the cell. The functions of trace elements have a dual role. In normal levels, they are important for stabilization of the cellular structures, but in deficiency states may stimulate alternate pathways and cause diseases. These trace elements have clinical significance and these can be estimated using different analytical method.

Keywords: Analytical methods, body function, health, trace elements

How to cite this article:
Prashanth L, Kattapagari KK, Chitturi RT, Baddam VR, Prasad LK. A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. J NTR Univ Health Sci 2015;4:75-85

How to cite this URL:
Prashanth L, Kattapagari KK, Chitturi RT, Baddam VR, Prasad LK. A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. J NTR Univ Health Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2023 Mar 21];4:75-85. Available from: https://www.jdrntruhs.org/text.asp?2015/4/2/75/158577

  Introduction Top

We have less than 100 years of knowledge on role of elements in the human body. It is estimated that 98% of the body mass of man is made up of nine nonmetallic elements. [1] The four main electrolytes namely sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium constitute about 1.89%, while the rest 0.02% or 8.6 g of an average human adults is made up of 11 typical trace elements. [2] However, this tiny fraction exerts a tremendous influence on all body functions. Most of them mediate vital biochemical reactions by acting as a cofactor or catalyst for many enzymes. They also act as centers of building stabilizing structures such as enzymes and proteins. The accumulation of metals or deficiency of these elements may stimulate an alternate pathway which might produce diseases. Interaction among the trace elements may also act as a scaffold upon which the etiopathogenesis of many nutritional disorders lie. [3] Although these elements account for only 0.02% of the total body weight, they play significant roles, e.g., as active centers of enzymes or as trace bioactive substances. [4] Trace elements refers to "elements that occurs in natural and perturbed environments in small amounts and that, when present in sufficient bioavailable concentrations are toxic to living organism." [4]

Elements such as iron, zinc, and selenium are essential components of enzymes where they attract or subtract molecules and facilitate their conversion to specific end products. Few elements donate or accept electrons in redox reactions, which results in generation and utilization of metabolic energy and have an impact on the structural stability and to import certain biological molecules. Iron is involved in the binding, transporting, and release of oxygen in higher animals. Some of the trace elements control important biological processes by facilitating the binding of molecules to their receptor sites on cell membrane, by alternating the structures or ionic nature of membrane to prevent or allow specific molecules to enter or leave a cell and in inducing gene expression resulting in the formation of protein involved in life processes. [5]

Essential elements for human body

  • Four organic basic elements: H, C, N, O
  • Quantity elements - Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Cl.
  • Essential trace elements - Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se, I.
  • Function suggested from active handling in humans, but no specific identified biochemical functions - Li, V, Cr, B, F, Si, As. [6]

  Biological Classification of Trace Elements Top

Various classifications have been proposed by so many authors on elements - both major as well as the trace elements, considered as essential for the normal development and growth.

Classification proposed by Frieden (1981) which divided the elements into micro, trace, and ultra-trace elements based on the amount found in tissues.

  1. Essential trace elements: Boron, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc.
  2. Probable essential trace elements: Chromium, fluorine, nickel, selenium, and vanadium.
  3. Physically promotive trace elements: Bromine, lithium, silicon, tin, and titanium. [7]

  Categorical Classification of Trace Elements Top

It is observed that there are at least 29 different types of elements including metal and nonmetals in an adult human body. These 29 elements can be broadly classified into five major groups they are as follows:

  1. Group I: These elements are the basic components of macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. The elements belonging to these groups are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  2. Group II: These are nutritionally important minerals. They are also called as principal elements or macro elements. Their daily requirement for an adult human is above 100 mg/day. The deficiency of such elements usually proves fatal unless intervened properly. The elements belonging to this group are sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sulfur.
  3. Group III: There are the essential trace elements. An element is called as trace elements when their requirement per day is below 100 mg and deficiency leads to disorders and may prove fatal. The elements belonging to this group are copper, iron, zinc, chromium, cobalt, iodine, molybdenum, and selenium. Of these, iodine is a nonmetal, while others are metals.
  4. Group IV: They are additional trace elements. Their role is not clear and they may be essential. The elements belonging to this group are cadmium, nickel, silica, tin, vanadium, and aluminum.
  5. Group V: This group of metals is not essential their presence may produce toxicity. They have no known function in the human body. The elements belonging to this group are gold, mercury, cyanide, and lead. [8]

The trace elements included Group III also called as minor elements. Their requirement is below 100 mg/day and their absence may not hinder normal development, but their activity may be substituted by another metal. [8] Analytical methods are used to measure metal concentration in human tissues and body fluids. [9]

Essential trace elements

The essential trace elements are broadly categorized into macro elements and trace or microelements [Table 1] and [Table 2]. [7]
Table 1: Macro Elements

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Table 2: Trace or Micro Elements

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The trace elements in human enzyme system

Copper (Cu)

Copper plays a very important role in our metabolism largely because it allows many critical enzymes to function properly. [10] Acidic conditions promotes the solubility which incorporates copper ions either in cupric form or cuprous form into the food chain. Copper toxicosis in plants is very rare compared to its deficiency while in animals and man toxicosis is usually induced by environmental concentrations in genetically abnormal individual. [11] Mainly copper is available in the liver, shellfish, dried fruit, milk and milk products, sunflower seeds, oysters, sesame seeds, tahini, and sun dried tomatoes. [12] The average content of metal in the plant usually ranges from 4 to 20 mg of copper per kg of dry weight. The average adult human of 70 kg weight contains about 100 mg. The daily requirement is about 2-5 mg of which 50% is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Rest is excreted via bile and kidney. Copper accumulates in the liver, brain and kidney more than rest of body. Over 90% of plasma copper is associated with ceruloplasmin and 60% of red blood cell (RBC) is bound to superoxide dismutase. [13]

In human blood, copper is principally distributed between the erythrocytes and in the plasma. In erythrocytes, 60% of copper occurs as the copper-zinc metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase, the remaining 40% is loosely bound to other proteins and amino acids. Total erythrocytes copper in normal human is around 0.9-1.0 pg/ml of packed red cells. [14] Copper has a selected biochemical function in hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis, connective tissue metabolism, and bone development. Synthesis of tryptophan is done in the presence of Cu. Besides these Cu as ceruloplasmin aid in the transport of iron to cells. [15] A deficiency of Cu in diet for prolonged period especially during stages of active growth leads to anemia, growth retardation, defective keratinization and pigmentation of hair, hypothermia, mental retardation, changes in skeletal system, and degenerative changes in aortic elastin. [16] Excessive Cu either from diet or through any other sources acquired rapidly produces nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating, and renal dysfunction. When the levels of Cu are acquired very slowly, they cause cirrhosis, hepatitis, tremors, mental detritions,  Kayser-Fleischer ring More Detailss, hemolytic anemia, GIT bleeding and azotemia. [16] Congenital diseases like Wilson's disease, Menke's syndrome, idiopathic fibrosis of lung has been associated with Cu. Vineyard sprayer's lung diseases is an occupational hazard due to Cu intake via aerosol which 75% is in blood. [17]

The serum levels of copper increases in patients with myocardial infarction, leukemia, solid tumors, infections, cirrhosis of liver, hemochromatosis, thyrotoxicosis, and computed tomography disorders. Decreased levels occur in nephrotic syndrome, Kwashiorkor, Wilson's disease, severe diarrhea, and vomiting. [18] The symptoms of copper deficiency are hypochromic anemia, neutropenia, hypopigmentation of hair and skin, abnormal bone formation with skeletal fragility and osteoporosis, joint pain, lowered immunity, vascular abnormalities, and uncrimped or steely hair. [19] High copper intake for prolonged period causes increased copper percentages in serum and tissue that in turn causes oxidative stress and affects several immune functions. [18] Decreased copper levels are observed in few malignancies, mostly in the tumors which have high catabolic rate or which is of highly metastatic type. Some of the trace elements like copper and zinc have an anticarcinogenic role. Copper is involved in the cell metabolism, and is a part of various enzymes such as tyrosinase, uricase, and cytochrome oxidase, which are mainly concerned with oxidation reaction. The mean serum copper levels were significantly higher in the sera of patients with oral potentially malignant disorders such as oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis and also malignant tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma. In oral submucous fibrosis patients, the serum levels of Cu gradually increases as the clinical stage of the disease progresses. [20]

Iron (Fe)

Iron is present in huge quantities all over the earth crust and also is available to a great extent from the plant kingdom. Acidic condition promotes the solubility of iron as ions either in ferric or ferrous forms. The total body content of iron is about 3-5 g of which 75% is in blood while the rest is in liver, bone marrow and muscles. [21] Heme is the major iron containing substance. It is found in Hb, myoglobin, cytochrome while the enzymes associated with iron are cytochrome A, B, C, F 450, cytochrome C reductase, catalases, peroxidases, xanthine oxidases, tryptophan pyrrolase, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, and choline dehydrogenase. [21]

An average daily requirement is 1-2 mg which has to provide as 20 mg of iron in food. Phytates and oxalates reduce the iron absorption in the GIT. Iron is absorbed from food when there is a need and the transport form of iron is known as ferritin. Hemosiderin is a golden brown pigment seen in cells of the reticuloendothelial system which is denatured form of ferritin. [2] The metabolism of iron is unique because it maintains homeostasis by regulating the absorption of iron but not excretion. When iron stores in the body are depleted, absorption is enhanced. [21] Deficiency of such an important trace metal will cause severe disorders, most important among them is iron deficiency anemia. [22] Microcytic hypochromic RBC's, tiredness, achlorhydria,  Plummer-Vinson syndrome More Details, atrophy of epithelium, impaired attention, irritability, and lowered memory are some of the features of iron deficiency anemia. [22] Iron deficiency anemia can lead to heart failure. [23] Anemia is the second most important cause of maternal mortality in India and it is estimated that about 20% of maternal deaths are directly related to anemia and another 50% of maternal deaths are associated with it. [24]

The deficiency when prolonged will be fatal. When iron is increased in body acutely, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea occurs along with hepatic damage. While chronic or prolonged accumulation of iron in body occurs there is a hepatic failure, diabetes, testicular atrophy, arthritis, cardiomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and hyperpigmentation. [25] Bronze diabetes is a triad of hemochromatosis, diabetes, and cirrhosis. The hepatic peptide hepcidin is an important systemic iron regulatory hormone. It regulates intestinal iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution by inducing degradation of its receptor and the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Ferroportin exports iron into plasma from absorptive enterocytes, from macrophages that recycle the iron from senescent erythrocytes, and from hepatocytes that store iron. Deficiency of hepcidin causes hemochromatosis. [26] There are very few genetic disorders related to iron. One of them is due to an abnormal gene located on short arm of chromosome number 6 and linked to human leukocyte antigen - A locus. [27] The erythropoietin may be inhibited by cytokines such as interleukin 1, 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interference. Serum ferritin levels are elevated, serum iron concentrations are decreased with tumor progression in head and neck carcinomas and thus it can be used as a follow-up tool for patients.[28] There are studies related to potentially malignant disorders and iron. In oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia, there is a significant decrease in Hb and serum iron, whereas in oral submucous fibrosis the total iron binding capacity showed statistically significant changes. [29] Recently, it has been found that iron may play a role in esophageal carcinogenesis. [30]

Zinc (Zn)

The metal zinc is an omnipotent metal that has amphoteric nature. Hence, it is ionized either in acidic or alkaline forms. Content of zinc is 2-3 ng the average body content of zinc is 2-3 g in an average adult. [31] About 99% is intracellular while the rest is in plasma. The average daily requirement is 15-20 mg/day. Phytase decreases fibers, phosphates, calcium, and copper competes with zinc for absorption from small intestine. [32] About 2-5 mg/day is excreted via pancreas and intestine. The other mode of excretion is via proximal tubule and sweat glands. [33]

Plasma zinc levels are decreased in pregnancy, fluid loss, oral contraceptive usage, blood loss, acute myocardial infarction, infections, and malignancies. [34] The function of zinc in cells and tissues is dependent on metalloproteinase and these enzymes are associated with reproductive, neurological, immune, dermatological systems, and GIT. It is essential for normal spermatogenesis and maturation, genomic integrity of sperm, for normal organogenesis, proper functioning of neurotransmitters, proper development of thymus, proper epithelialization in wound healing, taste sensation, and secretion of pancreas and gastric enzymes. [35] They can be biochemically classified as those involved in nucleic acid and protein synthesis and degradation, alcohol metabolism, carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. [31] They include transferases, hydrases, lyses, isomerizes oxidoreductases, and transcription factors. The enzyme most essential for zinc are alkaline phosphates, alcohol dehydrogenase, carboanhydrase, glutamate and lactase dehydrogenase, and RNA polymerases. The deficiency symptoms include compromised energy metabolism, alcohol intoxication, acidosis, blockage of protein biosynthesis, transmutation reaction blocked cell destruction by superoxide radicals. [31] Zinc plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolic activity of the cell. These modifications will take place in the presence of many zinc-binding proteins. Intracellular zinc is homeostatically maintained at extremely low levels either by sequestration in intracellular vesicles or binding to intracellular metalloproteinase and low molecular weight ligands. [36] Their reaction causes growth retardation, alopecia, dermatitis, immunological dysfunction, psychological disturbances, gonadal atrophy, faulty spermatogenesis, congenital malformation, keratogenesis, taste disorders, and delayed wound healing. The genetic disorder related with zinc metabolism is acrodermatitis enteropathica which is an autosomal recessive defect where there is an inability in Zn absorption. [37] Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. [38] Zinc plays an important role in the proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of mammalian cells. Various extracellular signals, e.g., redox stress, cytokines, and growth factors stimulate the release of zinc from metallothionein or alter the transport of zinc which alters the intracellular level of mobile reactive zinc. Zinc then binds to and activates metal responsive transcription factors or interacts directly with intracellular signaling molecules to modulate the expression of zinc-responsive genes and to regulate specific signal transduction pathways. Mutations that activate H-Ras are oncogenic in most cells and lead to malignant transformation and this Ras signaling pathway is inhibited by zinc. [36]

Chromium (Cr)

Chromium word is derived from Greek in which chrome means "color". First identified as PbCro4. Full name of chromium is chromium acetylacetonate. [39] The total content of chromium is about 0.006 g in an average human adult. The daily requirement is about 0.005 mg/day. The need of chromium is for biosynthesis of glucose tolerance factor. The deficiency causes impairment of glucose tolerance while toxicity results in renal failure, dermatitis, and pulmonary cancer. [40] Processed meats, whole grain products, pulses, and spices are the best sources of chromium, while dairy products and most fruits and vegetables contain only small amounts. [41] Chromium content in animal foodstuff such as meat, poultry, and fish is low which provides 2 μg Cr. Most dairy products are also low in Cr and provide <0.6 μg/serving. Whole wheat and wheat flour contain 5-10 μg of Cr/kg. Pulses, seeds, and dark chocolate may contain more chromium than most other foods. Certain spices such as black pepper contain high concentrations of chromium. Chromium is excreted principally in the urine and in small quantities in the hair, sweat, and bile. The major route of elimination after absorption is fecal. [42] Chromium is a human carcinogen primarily by inhalation exposure in occupational settings. Lung cancer has been established as a consequence of hexavalent chromium exposure in smokers and nonsmokers and some cancers of other tissues such as GIT and central nervous system. The most recent data reveals the induction of skin tumors in mice by chronic drinking-water exposure to hexavalent chromium in combination with solar ultraviolet light. [43],[44] Chromium deficiency is difficult to document because of the very low levels present in blood, while tissue levels are 10 times higher. If concentrations of chromium are lower than the normal value of 0.14-0.15 ng/ml for serum or 0.26 or 0.28 ng/ml for plasma it indicates the presence of a severe chromium deficiency. Raised plasma levels can coexist with a negative balance. Hyperglycemia may be associated with raised plasma chromium and increased urinary excretion, without reflecting tissue level. Chromium concentrations in urine, hair, and other tissues or body fluids have also been reported not to reflect chromium status. The role of chromium supplementation was investigated in special subgroups of patients with diabetes. [45] Longstanding exposure with chromium will cause chronic ulcers of the skin and acute irritative dermatitis have been consistently reported in workers exposed to chromium containing materials. [46] Inhalation of Chromium compounds causes marked irritation of the respiratory tract. Rhinitis, bronchospasm, and pneumonia. [45] Chromium is considered to be a one of the risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Welding fumes involves exposure to many chemicals, including metal dust, irritant gases. Welding in stainless steel is associated with an increased risk of cancer of larynx and pharynx due to exposure to hexavalent chromium. [46]


The average human adult contain about 1.1 g with the daily requirement of 0.0001 mg/day. It is a component of Vitamin B12. It induces erythropoietin and blocks iodine uptake by the thyroid. It has a role to play in methionine metabolism where it controls the transfer of enzymes like homocysteine methyltransferase. Deficiency produces cardiomyopathy, congestive cardiac failure, pericardial effusion, polycythemia, and thyroid enlargement. [47] The occurrence of cobalt in animal tissues was demonstrated by Bertrand and Macheboeuf in 1925 and a wide distribution was confirmed by other workers employing spectrographic methods. [48] Cobalt is usually found in the environment combined with other elements such as oxygen, sulfur, and arsenic. Small amounts of these chemical compounds can be found in rocks, soil, plants, and animals. Most of the production of cobalt involves the metallic form used in the formation of cobalt super alloys. The term "hard metal" refers to compounds containing tungsten carbide (80-95%) combined with matrices formed from cobalt (5-20%) and nickel (0-5%). For the general population, the diet is the main source of exposure to cobalt. Meat, liver, kidney, clams, oysters, and milk all contain some cobalt. Ocean fish and sea vegetables have cobalt, but land vegetables have very little; some cobalt is available in legumes, spinach, cabbage, lettuce, beet greens, and figs. [47] The recommended daily intake of Vitamin B12 for an adult in the USA was said to be 3 μg, corresponding to 0.012 μg of cobalt. [45] Cobalt compounds are absorbed by the oral and inhalation routes and through the skin. The degree of gastrointestinal absorption depends on the dose; very small doses in the order of a few μg/kg are absorbed almost completely, whereas larger doses are less well absorbed. [46] Cobalt is not easily absorbed from the digestive tract. The body level of cobalt normally measures 80-300 mcg. It is stored in the RBCs and the plasma, as well as in the liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas. [49],[50] Cobalt has both beneficial and harmful effects on human health. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is part of Vitamin B12, which is essential to maintain human health. Cobalt (0.16-1.0 mg cobalt/kg of body weight) has also been used as a treatment for anemia, including in pregnant women because it causes erythropoiesis. Cobalt also increases RBC production in healthy people, but only at very high exposure levels. [51] Deficiency of cobalt also leads to fatigue, digestive disorders, and neuromuscular problems. As cobalt's deficiency leads to decreased availability of B12, there is an increase of many symptoms and problems related to B12 deficiency, particularly pernicious anemia, and nerve damage. [51] Cobalt is excreted in both the urine and the feces, independent to the route of exposure (inhalation, injection or ingestion) most cobalt will be eliminated rapidly. [49] In one cohort study of people with hip prosthesis, there was a significant increase in the incidence of lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies, and significant deficits of breast and colorectal cancer. [51]

Manganese (Mn)

Manganese content of foods varies greatly. Peterson and Skinner and Schroeder et al. found the highest concentrations in nuts, grains, and cereals; the lowest in dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood. Relatively high concentrations of manganese were found in soluble ("instant") coffee and tea and account for 10% of the total daily intake. [52] The total body content average human adult has about 15 mg of manganese, typically seen in nucleic acid. Daily requirement is about 2-5 mg/day. Manganese acts as an activator of enzyme and as a component of metalloenzymes. They have a role to play in oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acids and cholesterol metabolism, mucopolysaccharide metabolism, and urea cycle. [53] Manganese is found in all mammalian tissues with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 2.9 μg manganese/g. Tissues rich in mitochondria and pigments (e.g., retina, dark skin) tend to have high manganese concentrations. Bone, liver, pancreas, and kidney typically have higher manganese concentrations than other tissues. The largest tissue store of manganese is in the bone. [53] Bone, liver, pancreas, and kidney typically have higher manganese concentrations than other tissues. The largest tissue store of manganese is in the bone. [53] In hydroxyapatite crystals of enamel, more than 49 elements are found, one of them being manganese, mostly in very small percentage. The concentrations of manganese in enamel are 0.08-20 ppm, equivalent 0.08-20 mg/kg, and in dentine are from 0.6 to 1000 ppm. Mn concentration is higher in the outer surface of enamel than in enamel-dentin border, and higher in permanent than in primary dentition. [54]

Some of the enzymes which are present along with magnesium are arginase, diamine oxidase, pyruvate carboxylate, phosphoglucomutase, succinate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, superoxide dismutase. The deficiency cause bleeding disorders due to increased prothrombin time while accumulation over a long period causes anorexia, apathy, headache impotence, leg cramps, speech disturbance, encephalitis like syndrome and parkinsonian like syndrome. Psychosis may also occur. [55]


The relationship between selenium and oral cancer has not yet been understood clearly, but there is some evidence observed that there is a relationship between selenium and Keshan syndrome. [55] Few studies have shown that prolonged deficiency of selenium produces this syndrome's features in animals such as failure growth in rats and muscle diseases in sheep. [56] A selenium responsive clinical syndrome in humans is described in some pathological conditions. In humans, they observed that those who take oral self-medication containing selenium causes muscular complications. [57] Low blood levels of selenium observed in some pathological conditions such as colonic, gastric and pancreatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. [58] Increased selenium intake may cause Keshan syndrome. [59] Keshan disease was first described in 1935 in North China. Clinically Keshan disease showed acute and chronic episodes of cardiogenic shock, enlarged heart, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. [60] The etiology of Keshan disease is still perplexing. There are numerous hypothesis suggested by different studies such as viral infections, environmental intoxication, mycotoxins, and nutritional deficiency. The hypothesis that relates with the deficiency of selenium is the most accepted hypothesis. [61]


Fluorine is a lightest element in Group VII of the periodic table, with atomic number 9. [62] Fluorine plays an important role in the hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth. It helps in producing denser bones and fluoride has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteoporosis. It is thought that fluoride, in conjunction with calcium, stimulates osteoblastic activity. It gets integrated into the bone matrix as fluorapatite which in turn increases the hardness of bones. Fluorine has profound anti-enzyme properties and prevents dental caries. The increased fluoride utilization could be responsible for the anticariogenic action. [63]

Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a hypothetical disorder, which may cause increased dental caries and possibly osteoporosis due to a lack of fluoride in the diet. High levels of dietary fluoride cause fluorosis (bone disease) and mottling of teeth. High levels of fluoride cause dental lesions, periosteal hyperostosis, calcification of ligaments, and lameness. Crippling fluorosis in human is observed in persons exposed to very high intake (>20 mg/day) over a period of several years. Acute toxicity of fluoride is very rare and can occur due to a single ingestion of a large amount of fluoride and can be fatal. The amount of fluoride considered lethal when taken orally is 35-70 mg F/kg body weight. Symptoms of acute toxicity occur rapidly. There is a diffuse abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, excess salivation, and thirst. Chronic toxicity is caused due to long-term ingestion of smaller amounts of fluoride in drinking-water. Excessive fluoride more than 8 ppm in drinking water daily for many years can lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Severe cases are normally found only in warm climates where drinking-water contains very high levels of fluoride. Due to chronic toxicity, bone density slowly increases; the joints stiffen and become painful. [64],[65]

Dental fluorosis may be easily recognized but the skeletal involvement is not clinically obvious until the advanced stage and early cases may be misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Fluoride increases the stability of the crystal lattice in bone, but makes bone more brittle. The total quantity of fluoride ingested is the single most important factor in determining the clinical course of skeletal fluorosis; the severity of symptoms correlates directly with the level and duration of exposure. Bone changes observed in human skeletal fluorosis are structural and functional, with a combination of osteosclerosis, osteomalacia, osteoporosis and exostosis formation, and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a proportion of patients. At very high fluoride concentrations, stages 2 and 3 of skeletal fluorosis are likely to occur. The clinical signs of these stages are chronic joint pain, dose-related calcification of ligaments, osteosclerosis, possible osteoporosis of long bones, and in severe cases, muscle wasting, and neurological defects. Because some of the clinical symptoms mimic arthritis, the first two clinical phases of skeletal fluorosis could be easily misdiagnosed. [66]


Iodine is a vital micronutrient required at all stages of life; fetal life and early childhood being the most critical phases of requirement. Iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 tetraiodothyronine) and (T3 triiodothyronine). [67] It also plays an important role in the functioning of the parathyroid glands. Iodine also promotes general growth and development within the body as well as aiding in metabolism. Because of its role in the metabolism, the symptoms of an iodine deficiency can be far reaching. Even though it is so important to proper functioning of the human organism, iodine deficiency is not uncommon. Severe iodine deficiency often occurs in individuals who have thyroid disease and are hyperthyroid or those who have a goiter from thyroid malfunction. Symptoms of iodine deficiency may include extreme fatigue, slowing of both physical and mental processes, weight gain, facial puffiness, constipation, and lethargy. Babies born to iodine deficient mothers may be lethargic and difficult to feed. If they are left untreated, it is likely that they will develop cretinism and end up suffering poor overall growth and mental retardation. [68]

Iodine overload is less common compared with its deficit though it is unfavorable, as well as a lack of it. The literature provides information demonstrating that intake of iodine from seaweeds is safe because iodine is organically bound and is not cumulated in the body. If its intake is exceeded, it is excreted with urine, mainly during the 1 st day. Organically bound iodine is harmless, even with prolonged use at high doses. For example, at intake of 1-5 mg of iodine with seaweeds by healthy people, all iodine is excreted with urine within 48 h. Only very high doses of organic iodine from seaweeds may cause unfavorable effects on the function of the thyroid gland. Excess iodine can cause as thyrotoxicosis so as hyperthyroidism as well as chronic thyroiditis, hashimoto's thyroiditis and even may increase the risk of thyroid gland cancer. [69]

  Clinical Significance of Essential Trace Elements Top

The clinical interest in trace metal determination for the diagnosis of different diseases has increased in recent years. Distribution of trace metal metabolism influences biochemical pathways in different fields of metabolism and causes characteristic diseases. Trace metal metabolism may be concerned with intake, dietary availability, absorption, distribution, storage, mobilization, biochemical activity, and excretion.

  Trace Elements and Fibrosis Top

Fibrosis of various organs and tissue have been studied, but only very few studies correlate the trace elements and fibrosis. The role of trace elements may be as a cofactor of any of enzyme involved in fibrosis. There are reports that trace elements abnormalities may be pathologically reflected as liver dysfunction leading to fibrosis. The antioxidant defenses in metal-induced liver damage, mainly iron, and copper overload is not fully understood due to a variety of perturbations in homeostasis. Levels of selected antioxidants may provide additional protection against liver injury and prevent progression of fibrosis and cirrhosis. [30]

Indian childhood cirrhosis leads to fibrosis. There are reports indicate that there are significant deposits of stainable copper in hepatocytes. Reports from Japanese literature say that excess iron and copper accumulation may cause liver damage and fibrosis. [70]

The action of molybdenum and tungsten upon collagen by the administration to rats, showed that there was a lower levels of cross-linking. It was concluded that tritopical binding of molybdenum and tungsten in the collagen is unlikely. The biological effect of these metals was due to competition with copper and the interference with physiological cross-linking reaction based on partial blockade of lysyl oxidase (LOX). The action of molybdenum for a long period in rats caused decreased collagen stability. The cobalt - chromium- molybdenum powder had no apparent effect on the growth of fibroblast when they were exposed to these metal powders in vitro studies. [54]

Role of trace elements in oral submucous fibrosis

  • Areca nut in any form have high level of soluble copper in them
  • The tissue of submucous fibrosis patients had increased copper and decreased zinc and iron than the normal patients
  • In submucous fibrosis patients, the serum levels showed decreased copper and increased zinc and iron contents than the normal patients.

This clearly shows that there exists a sort of interaction of metals copper, iron, and zinc. It is known fact that excess of iron produces a deficit of copper and zinc while an excess of zinc produces a deficit of copper and iron, it is assumed that the local increase of copper is due to the content of areca nut. The decrease of zinc and iron content may be attributed or secondary to an increase of copper levels. [30]

Dental aspects of trace elements

Since 1908, when in Texas Dental Society meeting at El Paso, mottled teeth were attributed to drinking-water; researches started on influence of trace elements on dental diseases. It was reported that about 41 elements are incorporated into a dental tissues during development of the tooth. The amount of each element reflected the environment which the process was exposed. After the development of hard dental tissue, there are only mild changes. Posteruptive uptake of trace elements is limited to surface and when restorations are done. [66]

Trace elements of teeth

Elements occurring above 1000 ppm are Na, Cl, and Mg. The elements that are found in a range of 100-1000 ppm are potassium, sulfur, zinc, silicone and Fl. While those are found b/w 10-100 ppm are iron, aluminum, lead, boron, and barium. 1-10 ppm of Cu, molybdenum, cadmium, iodine, titanium, chromium and Mg and found nickel, lithium, silver, selenium, cobalt are found in the range of 0.1-0.9 ppm. [71]

Trace elements in saliva

Saliva normally does not contain trace elements. If metal is found in excess quantities, they may be excreted via saliva. This may be reflected to diet, pollution or water. They in turn may affect the production of plaque, amount of saliva secreted, and metal concentration in saliva. [67]

Trace elements in dental caries

Of all the positive and negative interaction Fl, molybdenum, selenium and siliconium have been studied to produce cariostatic activity while interaction such as molybdenum - fluorine, molybdenum, copper, and siliconium - fluoride are primary interaction for cariostatic process. Cu acts as a caries promoting agent. [68]

Trace elements in dental soft-tissues

Epidermal parakeratosis in cheek, tongue, and esophagus is a sign of zinc deficiency. Thickening of the buccal mucosa is a common feature along with loss of filiform papillae. Deficiency of zinc could be loss of smell. [38]

Techniques to detect trace elements

Recently trace elements content of food and tissues has been created interest among research scholars. Such determinations required sensitivity and accurate methods of analysis. Most of the trace elements are estimated with a help of colorimetric and spectrographic methods of analysis. [69],[70]

Atomic absorption spectrometry-based on flames arcs and sparks (flame by electrothermal):

  • Emission spectroscopic methods.
  • Neutron activation analysis.
  • Electrochemical methods.
  • Isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
  • Atomic X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

For a single elements analysis, atomic spectroscopy and electrochemical methods are frequently applied. For multi elements tech, NAA and spectroscopic methods are used. [9]

  Obstacles Facing Elemental Analysis Top

The problem of analytical inaccuracy and sample contamination is the source of error in trace element studies. Accuracy in the analysis can be overcome by using properly graded instruments, avoiding operator bias, ambient temperature, and pressure. Sample contamination may occur at the collection device or storage devices or air or chemical reagents or lab instruments. The method should also include standard reference materials to avoid errors, in both sample storage and analysis. [9]

  Conclusion Top

The role of copper and other trace elements in LOX and submucous fibrosis may provide vital clue for the etiopathogenesis and enable to use inhibitors of the enzyme as antifibrotic agents. The ability of LOX to function as Ras recession gene product can provide an answer to the occurrence of carcinoma. The increased levels of copper and decreased levels of zinc and iron in biopsy specimen of oral submucous fibrosis when compared to normal may be sort of interaction with the serum levels that are reversed, decreased level of copper and increased level of zinc and iron in serum specimens of oral submucous fibrosis when compared to normal subjects. It is then also possible to relate anemia, a consistent finding with these diseases. Thus the deciphered role of trace elements and interaction of metals in LOX, will enable to understand the etiopathogenesis, provide a rapid diagnostic facility and also create effective treatment modalities.

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  [Table 1], [Table 2]

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47 Bioactive ZnO-assisted 1393 glass scaffold promotes osteogenic differentiation: Some studies
Akher Ali, Ankush Paladhi, Sumit Kumar Hira, Bhisham Narayan Singh, Ram Pyare
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2022;
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48 The Study of Relationship Between Multiple Myeloma and Some Trace Elements in Iraqi Patients
Abdulameer Jasim Mohammed, Abbas Mohsin Gate
Macromolecular Symposia. 2022; 401(1): 2100343
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49 Environmentally Relevant Hexavalent Chromium Disrupts Elemental Homeostasis and Induces Apoptosis in Zebrafish Liver
Pallab Shaw, Paritosh Mondal, Arpan Dey Bhowmik, Arindam Bandyopadhyay, Muthammal Sudarshan, Anindita Chakraborty, Ansuman Chattopadhyay
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2022;
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50 Health Risks for a Rural Community in Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria, Exposed to Potentially Toxic Elements from an Abandoned Tin Mine
Simon Gabriel Mafulul, Johannes H. Potgieter, Ishaya Yohanna Longdet, Zebulon S. C. Okoye, Sanja S. Potgieter-Vermaak
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2022;
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51 Spatiotemporal assessment of potentially toxic elements in sediments and roadside soil samples and associated ecological risk in Ropar wetland and its environs
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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2022; 194(9)
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52 Study of bioactive compounds in Arthrospira platensis MGH-1 fortified with micronutrients of iron, zinc, and manganese
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53 A review article on nanotechnology in aquaculture sustainability as a novel tool in fish disease control
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Aquaculture International. 2021;
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54 Determination of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) in herbal teas by TXRF , FAAS and ICP-OES
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55 Heavy metal residues in offals, muscle and eggs of intensively reared poultry birds in Umuahia, Abia State
Agnieszka Zgola-Grzeskowiak, Tomasz Grzeskowiak
Journal of Sustainable Veterinary and Allied Sciences. 2021; : 1
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56 Investigation of the effects of chemotherapy on trace element contents in the nails in patients with colorectal cancer
Phuong Truc Huynh,Binh Thanh Dinh,Linh Thi Truc Nguyen,Loan Thi Hong Truong,Hanh Van Nguyen,Dung Manh Ho,Dong Van Nguyen,Anh Tuan Tran
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 2021;
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57 Contamination of rice crop with potentially toxic elements and associated human health risks—a review
Sakshi Sharma,Inderpreet Kaur,Avinash Kaur Nagpal
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58 A single-nanozyme colorimetric array based on target-induced differential surface passivation for quantification and discrimination of Cl-, Br- and I- ions
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59 Trace Elements as Immunoregulators in SARS-CoV-2 and Other Viral Infections
Karthick Dharmalingam,Amandeep Birdi,Sojit Tomo,Karli Sreenivasulu,Jaykaran Charan,Dharmveer Yadav,Purvi Purohit,Praveen Sharma
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2021;
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60 ZnO Nanoadsorbents: A potent material for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater
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Colloid and Interface Science Communications. 2021; 41: 100380
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61 A review on enterosorbents and their application in clinical practice: Removal of toxic metals
Sevda Fatullayeva, Dilgam Tagiyev, Nizami Zeynalov
Colloid and Interface Science Communications. 2021; 45: 100545
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62 Bioenvironmental Trace Elements in Warm Climatic Plant, Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan)
M.Nageeb Rashed
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021; 199(4): 1623
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63 The Toxicological Risk Assessment of Trace Elements (Co, Cu, Fe, and Zn) in Snacks from Ijebu Ode, Ogun State, Southwest, Nigeria
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64 Protective Role of the Essential Trace Elements in the Obviation of Cadmium Toxicity: Glimpses of Mechanisms
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65 Elemental Analysis of Medicinal Herb Fagonia indica Burm. f. and Its Rhizospheric Soil from Six Geographical Locations of South-eastern Sindh Province, Pakistan, During Spring and Summer Seasons
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66 Concentration and Distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in Mackerel Icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) in South Georgia, Antarctic, During Winter
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67 Reversible Chemosensor for Bioimaging and Biosensing of Zn(II) and hpH in Cells, Larval Zebrafish, and Plants with Dual-Channel Fluorescence Signals
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68 Precise regulation of inflammation and immunosuppressive microenvironment for amplified photothermal/immunotherapy against tumour recurrence and metastasis
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69 A dual responsive colorimetric sensor based on polyazomethine and ascorbic acid for the detection of Al (III) and Fe (II) ions
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70 A rhodamine based chemosensor for solvent dependent chromogenic sensing of cobalt (II) and copper (II) ions with good selectivity and sensitivity: Synthesis, Filter paper test strip, DFT calculations and Cytotoxicity
Wei Chuen Chan,Hazwani Mat Saad,Kae Shin Sim,Vannajan Sanghiran Lee,Chee Wei Ang,Keng Yoon Yeong,Kong Wai Tan
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2021; : 120099
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71 Determination of some elements in the nails in patients with colon cancer using total reflection X-ray fluorescence
Huynh Truc Phuong,Nguyen An Son,Nguyen Thi Nguyet Ha,Nguyen Thi Minh Sang,Nguyen Thi Truc Linh,Dinh Thanh Binh,Truong Thi Hong Loan,Ho Manh Dung,Tran Tuan Anh,Nguyen Van Dong
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2021; : 106234
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72 Biodegradable zinc-iron alloys: Complex study of corrosion behavior, mechanical properties and hemocompatibility
Z. Orságová Králová,R. Gorejová,R. Orinaková,M. Petráková,A. Orinak,M. Kupková,M. Hrubovcáková,T. Sopcák,M. Baláž,I. Maskalová,A. Kovalcíková,K. Koval
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73 Analytical potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and zinc in human blood serum and plasma
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74 Quantitative analysis of mineral elements in hair and nails using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
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Optik. 2021; : 167067
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75 Differential diagnosis of a diffuse sclerosis in an identified male skull (early 20th century Coimbra, Portugal): A multimethodological approach for the identification of osteosclerotic dysplasias in skeletonized individuals
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76 Assessing mineral and toxic elements content in rice grains grown in southern Brazil
Victoria Freitas de Oliveira,Carlos Busanello,Vívian Ebeling Viana,Cássia Fernanda Stafen,Ana Marina Pedrolo,Fernanda Pollo Paniz,Tatiana Pedron,Rodrigo Mendes Pereira,Silvana Alves Rosa,Ariano Martins de Magalhăes Junior,Antonio Costa de Oliveira,Bruno Lemos Batista,Camila Pegoraro
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77 Trace elements in forensic human lung: a new approach to the diagnosis of seawater drowning. A preliminary study
Isabel Legaz,Estefanía Barrera-Pérez,Gemma Prieto-Bonete,Cristina Pérez-Martínez,Agustín Sibón,Antonio Maurandi-López,María D. Pérez-Cárceles
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78 Altered serum elements, antioxidants, MDA, and immunoglobulins are associated with an increased risk of seborrheic dermatitis
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79 Speciation study involving mononuclear binary transition metal (CoII, NiII and CuII) complexes of L-methionine in non-ionic micellar medium
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Heliyon. 2021; 7(4): e06729
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80 Trace and rare earth elements determination in milk whey from the Veneto region, Italy
Raffaello Tedesco, Maria del Carmen Villoslada Hidalgo, Massimiliano Vardč, Natalie M. Kehrwald, Carlo Barbante, Giulio Cozzi
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81 Evaluation of the influence of diet supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid isomers on elemental composition in the cardio-oncological nutritional programming rat’ model
Malgorzata Bialek,Agnieszka Bialek,Anna Ruszczynska,Ewa Bulska,Kamil Zaworski,Marian Czauderna
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2021; : 126816
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82 Human serum elements’ levels and leukemia: A first pilot study from an adult Greek cohort
Eirini Chrysochou,Konstantinos Koukoulakis,Panagiotis Georgios Kanellopoulos,Aikaterini Sakellari,Sotirios Karavoltsos,Manos Dassenakis,Minas Minaidis,George Maropoulos,Evangelos Bakeas
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2021; : 126833
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83 Cellular strategies against metal exposure and metal localization patterns linked to phosphorus pathways in Ochrobactrum anthropi DE2010
Eduard Villagrasa, Cristina Palet, Irene López-Gómez, Diana Gutiérrez, Isabel Esteve, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Antonio Solé
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021; 402: 123808
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84 Analysis of Soil Quality Status and Accumulation of Potentially Toxic Element in Food Crops Growing at Fecal Sludge Dumpsite in Ubakala, Nigeria
P. C. Ogbonna,I.P. Okezie,U.R. Onyeizu,E. Biose,O.U. Nwankwo,E.C. Osuagwu
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology. 2021; 5(1): 197
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85 Essential Metals in the Brain and the Application of Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for their Detection
Oluwabusuyi Rachael Folarin, Funmilayo E Olopade, James Olukayode Olopade
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2021; 36(2): 123
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86 Effect of Different Ratios of Blue and Red LED Light on Brassicaceae Microgreens under a Controlled Environment
Aušra Brazaityte,Jurga Miliauskiene,Viktorija Vaštakaite-Kairiene,Ruta Sutuliene,Kristina Laužike,Pavelas Duchovskis,Stanislaw Malek
Plants. 2021; 10(4): 801
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87 Assessment of Non-Conventional Irrigation Water in Greenhouse Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Production
Muhammad Mumtaz Khan, Mansour Hamed Al-Haddabi, Muhammad Tahir Akram, Muhammad Azam Khan, Aitazaz A. Farooque, Sajjad Ahmad Siddiqi
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88 Evaluation of Serum Selenium Status by Age and Gender: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study in Western Romania
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Nutrients. 2021; 13(5): 1497
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89 Development and Characterization of Novel Biopolymer Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Extract and Its Antidiabetic Potential
Abd Elmoneim O. Elkhalifa,Eyad Al-Shammari,Mohd Adnan,Jerold C. Alcantara,Khalid Mehmood,Nagat Elzein Eltoum,Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem,Mushtaq Ahmad Khan,Syed Amir Ashraf
Molecules. 2021; 26(12): 3609
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90 Role of Zinc (Zn) in Human Reproduction: A Journey from Initial Spermatogenesis to Childbirth
Sundaram Vickram,Karunakaran Rohini,Subramanian Srinivasan,David Nancy Veenakumari,Kumar Archana,Krishnan Anbarasu,Palanivelu Jeyanthi,Sundaram Thanigaivel,Govindarajan Gulothungan,Nanmaran Rajendiran,Padmalayam Sadanandan Srikumar
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4): 2188
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91 Coffee Brews: Are They a Source of Macroelements in Human Nutrition?
Ewa Olechno,Anna Puscion-Jakubik,Katarzyna Socha,Malgorzata Elzbieta Zujko
Foods. 2021; 10(6): 1328
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92 Comparative Fatty Acid Profiling of Edible Fishes in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Annabella Tramice, Marco Trifuoggi, Mohammad Fadhli Ahmad, Su Shiung Lam, Carmine Iodice, Gennaro Velotto, Antonella Giarra, Sara Inglese, Adelaide Cupo, Giulia Guerriero, Giuseppina Tommonaro
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93 Toxic Metals in Wild Ungulates and Domestic Meat Animals Slaughtered for Food Purposes: A Systemic Review
Davies Veli Nkosi, Johan Leon Bekker, Louwrens Christian Hoffman
Foods. 2021; 10(11): 2853
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94 Directions of Changes in the Content of Selected Macro- and Micronutrients of Kale, Rutabaga, Green and Purple Cauliflower Due to Hydrothermal Treatment
Joanna Kapusta-Duch,Adam Florkiewicz,Teresa Leszczynska,Barbara Borczak
Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(8): 3452
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95 Correlation between Heavy Metal-Induced Histopathological Changes and Trophic Interactions between Different Fish Species
Bianca Onita (Mladin),Paul Albu,Hildegard Herman,Cornel Balta,Vasile Lazar,Andras Fulop,Edina Baranyai,Sándor Harangi,Sandor Keki,Lajos Nagy,Tibor Nagy,Vilmos Józsa,Dénes Gál,Károly Györe,Miruna Stan,Anca Hermenean,Anca Dinischiotu
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96 Land Suitability Mapping Using Geochemical and Spatial Analysis Methods
Dimitrios E. Alexakis,George D. Bathrellos,Hariklia D. Skilodimou,Dimitra E. Gamvroula
Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(12): 5404
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97 The Correlation Between Whole Blood Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) Levels and Cu/Zn Ratio and Sepsis-Induced Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (SILVSD) in Patients with Septic Shock: A Single-Center Prospective Observational Study
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International Journal of General Medicine. 2021; Volume 14: 7219
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98 Assessment of serum Zinc, Copper and Selenium in non-symptomatic Sickle-Cell Anaemia patients at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
Alfred Machiko,Trevor Kaile,Sumbukeni Kowa,Christopher Newton-Phiri,Jacob Ndhlovu,Marah Simakando,Soka Nyirenda
Journal of Preventive and Rehabilitative Medicine. 2021; 3(2): 69
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99 Identification of Major Compounds and a-Amylase and a-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Rhizome of Musa balbisiana Colla: An in-vitro and in-silico Study
Ananta Swargiary, Manita Daimari
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening. 2021; 25(1): 139
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L. G. Lisetskaya
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2021; 28(2): 13
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101 Trace Elements and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study from Jamaica
Adwalia Fevrier-Paul, Adedamola Soyibo, Nimal De Silva, Sylvia Mitchell, Donovan McGrowder, Mitko Voutchkov
EMJ Nephrology. 2021; : 79
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102 Macro and Trace Elements in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivated in Greece: Risk Assessment of Toxic Elements
Effrosyni Zafeiraki,Konstantinos M. Kasiotis,Paul Nisianakis,Kyriaki Machera
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2021; 9
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103 Trace elements, peripheral blood film, and gene expression status in adolescents living near an industrial area in the Colombian Caribbean Coastline
Alejandra Manjarres-Suarez,Jesus de la Rosa,Audreis Gonzalez-Montes,Javier Galvis-Ballesteros,Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology. 2021;
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104 Optimized preconcentration method using magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction with GO–?Fe2O3 nanoparticles for the determination of Se in fish samples by FIA-HG-AAS
Mayara Cristina Leal do Nascimento,Fernanda Nunes Ferreira,Ana Paula Benevides,Danilo de Castro da Silva,Deborah Vargas Cesar,Aderval S. Luna,Jefferson S. de Gois
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 2021;
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105 Assessment of 26 elements in hair and internal tissues of Persian jird (Meriones persicus) in Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran
Manoochehr Khazaee,Amir Hossein Hamidian,Seyyed Ali Ashghar Mirjalili,Sohrab Ashrafi,Aria Khazaee
International Journal of Environmental Studies. 2021; : 1
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106 An effervescence-assisted switchable hydrophobicity solvent microextraction before microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry for copper ions in vegetables
H. Elif Pelvan,Çigdem Arpa
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2021; : 1
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107 Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Threatened Miscarriage: Advantages and Risks
Lingjing Lu,Juan Li,Yu Zhou,Hongxia Ma,Min Hu,Yong Wang
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1
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108 Study design of laser detector for sensing zinc concentration in human serum
R. Hani,B.R. Mahdi,A.Z. Mohammed
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2021; 1795(1): 012003
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109 Higher levels of lead and aluminium are associated with increased risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults: An 18-month follow-up study
Theng Choon Ooi,Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh,Suzana Shahar,Nor Fadilah Rajab,Razinah Sharif
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110 Biological variation and reference change value data for serum copper, zinc and selenium in Turkish adult population
Ceylan Bal,Serpil Erdogan,Gamze Gök,Cemil Nural,Betül Özbek,Müjgan Ercan,Muhittin Serdar,Özcan Erel
Turkish Journal of Biochemistry. 2021; 0(0)
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Marili Funmilayo ZUBAIR,Sulyman IBRAHIM,Atolani ATOLANI,Hamid ABDULMUMEEN
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry. 2021; : 977
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112 Prenatal metal mixtures and child blood pressure in the Rhea mother-child cohort in Greece
Caitlin G. Howe,Katerina Margetaki,Marina Vafeiadi,Theano Roumeliotaki,Marianna Karachaliou,Manolis Kogevinas,Rob McConnell,Sandrah P. Eckel,David V. Conti,Maria Kippler,Shohreh F. Farzan,Leda Chatzi
Environmental Health. 2021; 20(1)
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113 Copper concentration in erythrocytes, platelets, plasma, serum and urine: influence of physical training
Víctor Toro-Román,Jesús Siquier-Coll,Ignacio Bartolomé,Francisco J. Grijota,Diego Muńoz,Marcos Maynar-Marińo
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2021; 18(1)
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114 Adoption of strategies for clean combustion of biomass in boilers
Shrutika Sharma,Mayank Sharma,Deepa Mudgal,Hiralal Bhowmick
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115 Incidence risk of bronchopneumonia in newborn calves associated with intrauterine diselementosis
Elena Kalaeva,Vladislav Kalaev,Anton Chernitskiy,Mohammad Alhamed,Vladimir Safonov
Veterinary World. 2020; 13(5): 987
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116 Culinary and herbal resources as nutritional supplements against malnutrition-associated immunity deficiency: the vegetarian review
Ashish Majumdar,Shiv Shankar Shukla,Ravindra Kumar Pandey
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117 Association Between Aluminium Exposure and Cognitive Functions Among Adult Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Bhavani Shankara Bagepally,Rakesh Balachandar,Ravibabu Kalahasthi,Ravikesh Tripathi,Madhumitha Haridoss
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118 Determination of micro essential element Fe in foodstuffs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)
Saeful Yusuf,Siti Suprapti,Siti Istanto,Rina Mulyaningsih,Rina Sutisna,Rina Alfian
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020; 1436: 012072
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119 Effect of Zn and Co doping on antibacterial efficacy and cytocompatibility of spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite
Arjak Bhattacharjee,Rubia Hassan,Anshul Gupta,Madhu Verma,Prem Anand Murugan,Pradyut Sengupta,Matheshwaran Saravanan,Indranil Manna,Kantesh Balani
Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 2020; 103(8): 4090
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120 A New Co(II)-Containing Coordination Polymer Constructed by the Mixed-Ligand Approach: Crystal Structure and Alleviation of CVB3-Induced Myocarditis by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cytokines Production
W. -X. Huo,X. -T. Liu,Z. -F. Zhang,M. Zhao,Q. -S. Zhang
Journal of Structural Chemistry. 2020; 61(3): 496
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121 Active Compound Identification in Extracts of N. lappaceum Peel and Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity
Mariel Monrroy,Onix Araúz,José Renán García
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122 Impact of Abattoir Wastes on Trace Metal Accumulation, Speciation, and Human Health–Related Problems in Soils Within Southern Nigeria
Godwin Asukwo Ebong, Ekomobong Samuel Ettesam, Emmanuel Udo Dan
Air, Soil and Water Research. 2020; 13: 1178622119
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123 Hybrid LIBS-Raman-LIF systems for multi-modal spectroscopic applications: a topical review
Dhanada V S,Sajan D George,V. B Kartha,Santhosh Chidangil,Unnikrishnan V K
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124 Mineral compositions of infant complementary foods in relation to dietary daily intake and synergistic/antagonistic interrelationships
Lawrence Olusegun Ajala,Onaheed Babiker Dafallah,Nwogo Ajuka Obasi,Temitope Omolayo Fasuan,Segun Solomon Ogundapo
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2020; : 1
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125 Determination of essential and toxic elements content of Turkish peanut and assessment of health risk
A.H.A. Abugoufa,S. Turhan,A. Kurnaz,M. Karatasli
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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126 Potential human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements intake via consumption of soft drinks purchased from different Egyptian markets
Mahmoud Ghuniem,Mona A. Khorshed,Sherif M. El- Safty,Eglal R. Souaya,Mostafa Khalil
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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127 Natural filtration unit for removal of heavy metals from water
Fatemah S. Abdulraheem,Zainab S. Al-Khafaji,Khalid S. Hashim,Magomed Muradov,Patryk Kot,Ali Abdulhussein Shubbar
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020; 888: 012034
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128 Estimation of Uranium Concentration in sediment Samples of the Part of the Shatt al-Arab passing in central and southern Basrah Governorate using ICP-MS Technique
Thaer M. Salman,Ali F. Habeeb
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2020; 928: 072090
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129 Topic: chemical compositions and mineral content of four selected South African herbal teas and the synergistic response of combined teas
Florence Malongane,Lyndy Joy McGaw,Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau
British Food Journal. 2020; 122(9): 2769
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130 Autophagy changes in lung tissues of mice at 30 days after carbon black-metal ion co-exposure
Wei He,Hongzhen Peng,Jifei Ma,Qisheng Wang,Aiguo Li,Jichao Zhang,Huating Kong,Qingnuan Li,Yanhong Sun,Ying Zhu
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131 Serum trace element and heavy metal levels in patients with sepsis
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The Aging Male. 2020; : 1
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132 DNA methylation changes in promoter region of CDKN2A gene in workers exposed in construction environment
Isana Rodrigues Silva,Luiza Flavia Veiga Francisco,Cassia Bernardo,Marco Antônio Oliveira,Fernando Barbosa,Henrique César Santejo Silveira
Biomarkers. 2020; : 1
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133 Ionomic profiling of pericardial fluid in ischemic heart disease
Noman Khan,Satwat Hashmi,Amna Jabbar Siddiqui,Sabiha Farooq,Shahid Ahmed Sami,Nageeb Basir,Syeda Saira Bokhari,Hasanat Sharif,Sanaullah Junejo,Syed Ghulam Musharraf
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134 Zinc oxide nanoparticles for therapeutic purposes in cancer medicine
Nadine Wiesmann,Wolfgang Tremel,Juergen Brieger
Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2020;
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135 Chemical Analysis of Traditional Food Additive Dokhora Khar Derived from Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Anjumani Talukdar,Dibakar C. Deka
Current Nutrition & Food Science. 2020; 16(3): 368
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136 Long-Term Accumulation of Metals in the Skeleton as Related to Osteoporotic Derangements
Geir Bjřrklund, Lyudmila Pivina, Maryam Dadar, Yuliya Semenova, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Jan Aaseth
Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 27(40): 6837
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137 Cobalt–Chromium Dental Alloys: Metal Exposures, Toxicological Risks, CMR Classification, and EU Regulatory Framework
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Crystals. 2020; 10(12): 1151
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138 Monitoring the content of ethyl carbamate and copper in organic and conventional cachaça
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Scientia Agricola. 2020; 77(5)
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139 Long-Term Effects of the Application of Urban Waste Compost and Other Organic Amendments on Solanum tuberosum L.
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Agronomy. 2020; 10(10): 1575
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140 Trace Element Levels in Serum Are Potentially Valuable Diagnostic Markers in Dogs
Yolanda Cedeńo,Marta Miranda,Inmaculada Orjales,Carlos Herrero-Latorre,Maruska Suárez,Diego Luna,Marta López-Alonso
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141 Surface Analysis of Biodegradable Mg-Alloys after Immersion in Simulated Body Fluid
Darja Steiner Petrovic,Djordje Mandrino,Božidar Šarler,Jelena Horky,Andrea Ojdanic,Michael J. Zehetbauer,Dmytro Orlov
Materials. 2020; 13(7): 1740
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142 Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications
Grazyna Gromadzka,Beata Tarnacka,Anna Flaga,Agata Adamczyk
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23): 9259
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143 Nutrition, Bioenergetics, and Metabolic Syndrome
Francesc Josep García-García,Anna Monistrol-Mula,Francesc Cardellach,Glňria Garrabou
Nutrients. 2020; 12(9): 2785
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144 The Interactive Effect of High Doses of Chromium(III) and Different Iron(III) Levels on the Carbohydrate Status, Lipid Profile, and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Female Wistar Rats
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Nutrients. 2020; 12(10): 3070
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145 Health Risk Evaluation of Trace Elements in Geophagic Kaolinitic Clays within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins, Nigeria
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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(13): 4813
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146 Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Myctophids in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Ecosystem of the Gulf of California
Cátia Figueiredo,Miguel Baptista,Tiago F. Grilo,Miguel Caetano,Unai Markaida,Joana Raimundo,Rui Rosa
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147 Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensor for Blood with Different Concentration of Zinc
Raghad Hani,Bushra R. Mahdi,Ayad Z. Mohammad
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148 A new water-soluble Fe3+ fluorescence sensor with a large Stokes shift based on [5]helicene derivative: Its application in flow injection analysis and biological systems
Anuwut Petdum,Nitchanat Waraeksiri,Oranual Hanmeng,Suphaluk Jarutikorn,Sumonmarn Chaneam,Jitnapa Sirirak,Adisri Charoenpanich,Waraporn Panchan,Thanasat Sooksimuang,Nantanit Wanichacheva
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149 Association between Aluminium exposure and cognitive functions: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Bhavani Shankara Bagepally,Rakesh Balachandar,Ravibabu Kalahasthi,Ravikesh Tripathi,Madhumita Haridoss
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150 Iron-caseinglycomacropeptide complexes: Characterization and application in beverages
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151 Evaluation of the effectiveness of a portable air cleaner in mitigating indoor human exposure to cooking-derived airborne particles
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Environmental Research. 2020; : 109192
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152 Technical development and optimisation of a passive sampler based on polymer inclusion membrane for uptake of copper, nickel, cobalt and cadmium in surface waters
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153 Composition and functionality of bee pollen: A review
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154 Antibiofilm and anticancer potential of ß-glucan-binding protein-encrusted zinc oxide nanoparticles
Mani Divya,Marimuthu Govindarajan,Sivashanmugam Karthikeyan,Elumalai Preetham,Naiyf S. Alharbi,Shine Kadaikunnan,Jamal M. Khaled,Taghreed N. Almanaa,Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
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155 Simultaneous determination of Fe and Zn in dried blood spot by HR-CS GF AAS using solid sampling
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156 ICP-MS and trace element analysis as tools for better understanding medical conditions
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157 Vanadium sustainability in the context of innovative recycling and sourcing development
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158 Influence of dietary zinc on growth, zinc bioaccumulation and expression of genes involved in antioxidant and innate immune in juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain)
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British Journal of Nutrition. 2020; : 1
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159 Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E on Enzymatic, Biochemical, and Immunological Biomarkers in Galleria mellonella L
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160 Chronic immobilization stress induces anxiety-related behaviors and affects brain essential minerals in male rats
Zafer Sahin,Alpaslan Ozkurkculer,Omer Faruk Kalkan,Ahmet Ozkaya,Aynur Koc,Raviye Ozen Koca,Hatice Solak,Zulfikare Isik Solak Gormus,Selim Kutlu
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161 Bioactive Glasses: A Promising Therapeutic Ion Release Strategy for Enhancing Wound Healing
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162 Multielement Determination in Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines Containing Cynara scolymus L., Harpagophytum procumbens D.C., and Maytenus ilifolia (Mart.) ex Reiss from Brazil Using ICP OES
Caroline de Aragăo Tannus,Fernanda de Souza Dias,Filipe Barbosa Santana,Daniele Cristina Muniz Batista dos Santos,Hemerson Iury Ferreira Magalhăes,Fábio de Souza Dias,Aníbal de Freitas Santos Júnior
Biological Trace Element Research. 2020;
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163 Contents of Metal(loid)s in a Traditional Ethiopian Flat Bread (Injera), Dietary Intake, and Health Risk Assessment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Desta Woldetsadik,Eulogio J. Llorent-Martínez,Pilar Ortega-Barrales,Abinet Haile,Hillette Hailu,Nelly Madani,Noah S. Warner,David E. B. Fleming
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164 Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Serums of Beta Thalassemia Major Patients
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165 Micronutrients Profile in Oral Lichen Planus: a Review Literature
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166 Mineral and Fatty Acid Content Variation in White Oat Genotypes Grown in Brazil
Josiane Vargas de Oliveira Maximino,Lílian Moreira Barros,Rodrigo Mendes Pereira,Ivandra Ignes de Santi,Bianca Camargo Aranha,Carlos Busanello,Vívian Ebeling Viana,Rogério Antonio Freitag,Bruno Lemos Batista,Antonio Costa de Oliveira,Camila Pegoraro
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167 Trace element nanoparticles improved diabetes mellitus; a brief report
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168 Microbial and heavy metal hazard analysis of edible tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
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Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 2020;
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169 Zinc alleviates maneb-induced kidney injury in adult mice through modulation of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and histopathological changes
Mediha Sefi,Mariem Chaâbane,Awatef Elwej,Safa Bejaoui,Rim Marrekchi,Kamel Jamoussi,Naourez Gouiaa,Tahia Boudawara Sellami,M’hamed El Cafsi,Najiba Zeghal,Nejla Soudani
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170 The influence of processing and clarifier agents on the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in pekmez (a grape molasses-like syrup)
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171 Fast non-destructive assessment of heavy metal presence by ATR–FTIR analysis of crayfish exoskeleton
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172 Zinc(II) halide and copper(II) bromide complexes with caffeine: structures, physicochemical properties, and biological activity
N. S. Rukk,L. G. Kuzmina,G. A. Davydova,G. A. Buzanov,S. K. Belus,E. I. Kozhukhova,V. M. Retivov,T. V. Ivanova,V. N. Krasnoperova,B. M. Bolotin
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173 Heavy Elements Revealed in Jejunum of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Monkeys by Microparticle Induced X-Ray Emission
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physica status solidi (a). 2020; : 2000107
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174 Effects of trace metal elements on ultrastructural features of hepatopancreas of Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, 1833 (Crustacea, Isopoda)
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175 A novel method for the estimation of cobalt (II) in practical samples using ammonium pyrollidine dithiocarbamate
Muhammad A. Korai,Ghulam A. Shar,Gul A. Soomro,Aftab Ahmad,Fatima Jalal,Muhammad S. Ashiq,Hafiz M. Husnain,Nisar A. Shar,Rafique A. Shar,Munawar Iqbal
Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 2019;
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176 Evaluating the health risk of metals (Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb) in staple foods from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwestern Nigeria
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177 The production of no carrier added arsenic radioisotopes in nuclear reactors
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178 Metals and emerging contaminants in groundwater and human health risk assessment
Luiza Flavia Veiga Francisco,Bruno do Amaral Crispim,Juliana Caroline Vivian Spósito,Julio César Jut Solórzano,Nayara Halimy Maran,Fábio Kummrow,Valter Aragăo do Nascimento,Cassiana Carolina Montagner,Kelly Mari Pires De Oliveira,Alexeia Barufatti
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179 Natural versus anthropogenic influence on trace elemental concentration in precipitation at Dokriani Glacier, central Himalaya, India
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180 Spatial contamination and health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in surface soils from a petrochemical complex in the north-eastern region of Algeria
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International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2019;
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181 Saraca asoca seed extract treatment recovers the trace elements imbalances in experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis
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Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2019;
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182 Investigation of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, Adiponectin, Zn, and Cu Levels in Obese Subjects
Idris Mehmetoglu,Muhammet Çelik,Mehmet Nuri Atalar,Zübeyir Mehmetoglu,Aysenur Aygün,Fatih Sen
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183 Toxicity evaluation and management of co-composting pistachio wastes combined with cattle manure and municipal sewage sludge
Mahrokh Jalili,Mehdi Mokhtari,Hadi Eslami,Fariba Abbasi,Reza Ghanbari,Ali Asghar Ebrahimi
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184 Antibacterial and magnetic response of site-specific cobalt incorporated hydroxyapatite
Arjak Bhattacharjee,Anshul Gupta,Madhu Verma,Murugan Prem Anand,Pradyut Sengupta,Matheshwaran Saravanan,Indranil Manna,Kantesh Balani
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185 Simultaneous analysis of 25 trace elements in Micro volume of human serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
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186 Synthesis of Stable Al(0) Nanoparticles in Water in the form of Al(0)@Cu and Sequestration of Cu2+(aq) with Simultaneous H2 Production
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ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2019;
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187 Synthesis, structure and cytotoxicity of a zinc(II) bromide complex with caffeine
Nataliya S. Rukk,Lyudmila G. Kuz’mina,Galina A. Davydova,Grigory A. Buzanov,Vasilii M. Retivov,Svetlana K. Belus,Evgeniya I. Kozhukhova,Alexander E. Barmashov,Alexey A. Khrulev,Mariya A. Simonova,Valeriya N. Krasnoperova
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188 Metal concentration, phenolics profiling, and antioxidant activity of two wild edible Melanoleuca mushrooms (M. cognata and M. stridula)
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189 A light controlled, sensitive, selective and portable spiropyran based receptor for mercury ions in aqueous solution
Arvind Kumar,Priya Ranjan Sahoo,Priya Arora,Satish Kumar
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2019; : 112061
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190 A benzothiazolinic spiropyran for highly selective, sensitive and visible light controlled detection of copper ions in aqueous solution
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Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2019; : 112265
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191 The comparison of zinc, copper and iron levels in serum, aorta and left internal mammarian artery tissues in coronary by-pass graft surgery patients
Denizhan Karis,Duygu Tarhan,Kamil Boyacioglu,Cengiz Köksal,Alev Meltem Ercan
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2019; 51: 86
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192 Assessment of 7 trace elements in serum of patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease
Jongwon Oh,Sun Hye Shin,Rihwa Choi,Serim Kim,Hyung-Doo Park,Su-Young Kim,Sun Ae Han,Won-Jung Koh,Soo-Youn Lee
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2019; 53: 84
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193 Trace mineral composition of human breast milk from Brazilian mothers
Rafaella Regina Alves Peixoto,Carla Regina Bianchi Codo,Vitor Lacerda Sanches,Tamara Cristina Guiraldelo,Fábio Ferreira da Silva,Rafael Luis Ribessi,Sérgio Tadeu Martins Marba,Solange Cadore
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194 Is There a Link between Zinc Intake and Status with Plasma Fatty Acid Profile and Desaturase Activities in Dyslipidemic Subjects?
Marija Knez,Ana Pantovic,Milica Zekovic,Zoran Pavlovic,Maria Glibetic,Manja Zec
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195 Structural Changes of Bacillus subtilis Biomass on Biosorption of Iron (II) from Aqueous Solutions: Isotherm and Kinetic Studies
Polish Journal of Microbiology. 2019; 68(4): 549
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196 A novel method to extract important features from laser induced breakdown spectroscopy data: application to determine heavy metals in mulberries
Lingxia Huang,Liuwei Meng,Liang Yang,Jingyu Wang,Shaojia Li,Yong He,Di Wu
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 2019; 34(3): 460
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197 Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Smoked Corbicula fluminea Collected on Roadside Vendors at Kelantan, Malaysia
Koh Han Dee,Faizuan Abdullah,Siti Nor Aini Md Nasir,Suganthi Appalasamy,Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi,Aweng Eh Rak
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198 Natural Colorimetric Sensor from Sappanwood for Turn-on Selective Fe2+ Detection in Aqueous Media and Its Application in Water and Pharmaceutical Samples
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199 ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? CHLORELLA VULGARIS
????? ????????? ?????????,????????? ????????????? ???????,?????????? ????????????? ?????
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200 Monitoring and risk assessment due to presence of heavy metals and pesticides in tea samples
Food Science and Technology. 2018;
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201 The Influence of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements on Comatose Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in the First Week of Admission
Bahia Belatar,Abdallah Elabidi,Malika Barkiyou,Mamoun El Faroudi,Rachid Eljaoudi,Laila Lahlou,Saad Kabbaj,Wajdi Maazouzi
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202 Alterations of serum macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with major depressive disorder: a case-control study
Md Rabiul Islam,Md Reazul Islam,M. M. A. Shalahuddin Qusar,Mohammad Safiqul Islam,Md Humayun Kabir,G. K. M. Mustafizur Rahman,Md Saiful Islam,Abul Hasnat
BMC Psychiatry. 2018; 18(1)
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203 Biological Effects of Freshly Prepared and 24-h Aqueous Dispersions of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on E. coli Bacteria
O. V. Zakharova,A. A. Gusev,Yu. V. Altabaeva,S. Yu. Perova
Nanotechnologies in Russia. 2018; 13(3-4): 173
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204 Optimization of the Sample Preparation Procedure for the Determination of Trace Elements in Auricularia auricula by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry
Ziwei Li,Dongming Han,Mingchuan Wang,Yuexin Zhang,Yang Wang,Xiufeng Yan,Qiuying Pang
Analytical Letters. 2018; : 1
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205 Discrimination of Chili Powder Origin Using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy
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Analytical Letters. 2018; : 1
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206 Health risk assessment of fluoride in water distribution network of Mashhad, Iran
Mansour Ghaderpoori,Maryam Paydar,Ahmad Zarei,Hossein Alidadi,Ali Asghar Najafpoor,Abdol Hamid Gohary,Mahmoud Shams
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207 Evaluation of hepatorenal protective activity of Moringa oleifera on histological and biochemical parameters in cadmium intoxicated rats
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208 Ameliorative effect of selenium nanoparticles and fish oil on cisplatin and gamma irradiation-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats
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Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2018; : 1
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209 Genotypic effect on fruit production and quality, antioxidant content and elemental composition of organically grown Physalis angulata L. and Physalis pubescens L.
Nadezhda A. Golubkina,Helene G. Kekina,Mezar R. Engalichev,Marina S. Antoshkina,Gianluca Caruso
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210 Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation -ICPMS New Vistas for Biochemical Analyses of Ischemic Stroke in Rat Brain
Mohamed H. M. Ali,Fazle Rakib,Essam M. Abdelalim,Andreas Limbeck,Raghvendra Mall,Ehsan Ullah,Nasrin Mesaeli,Donald McNaughton,Tariq Ahmed,Khalid Al-Saad
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2018; 12
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211 Biofortified Crops Generated by Breeding, Agronomy, and Transgenic Approaches Are Improving Lives of Millions of People around the World
Monika Garg,Natasha Sharma,Saloni Sharma,Payal Kapoor,Aman Kumar,Venkatesh Chunduri,Priya Arora
Frontiers in Nutrition. 2018; 5
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212 Potential of Food Hydrolyzed Proteins and Peptides to Chelate Iron or Calcium and Enhance their Absorption
Mallory Walters,Ramak Esfandi,Apollinaire Tsopmo
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213 Role of Toxic Elements in Chronic Kidney Disease
Adwalia Fevrier-Paul,Adedamola K Soyibo,Sylvia Mitchell,Mitko Voutchkov
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214 Potential role for selenium in the pathophysiology of crib-biting behavior in horses
Arash Omidi,Reza Jafari,Saeed Nazifi,Matthew O. Parker
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215 Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from Tehranćs market using ICP- OES: A risk assessment study
Ayub Ebadi Fathabad,Nabi Shariatifar,Mojtaba Moazzen,Shahrokh Nazmara,Yadolah Fakhri,Mahmood Alimohammadi,Ali Azari,Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
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