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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-23

Association between oral manifestations and inhaler use in asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Panineeya Dental College and Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Sana Khaled
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Panineeya Dental College and Research Centre, Hyderabad - 500 060, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.178950

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Objectives: To examine the association between oral manifestations and type, frequency and duration of inhaler usage, also type and dosage of medication used in asthmatic and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 patients of both sexes suffering from asthma and COPD who were using inhalers. Frequency of oral manifestation seen on the tongue, buccal mucosa, teeth, periodontium, palate, floor of the mouth, lips, and xerostomia in inhaler users depending on the type of inhaler, type and dosage of medication, frequency and duration of use of inhaler were examined. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ulceration (36.6%) and candidiasis (27.1%) on the tongue were most commonly found among those who were 25-50 years old and the elderly group, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.081). A significant association was observed (P < 0.05) for a higher percentage of females (59.7%) with gingivitis/gingival enlargement and periodontitis in males (25.6%). The teeth were affected in all types of users but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Gingivitis/gingival enlargement (53.6% and 51.5%) was almost similar but periodontitis was higher in those using >500 μg. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed with duration <1 year; oral manifestations seen were taste alterations (53.2%) in tongue, ulcerations (63.6%) in the buccal mucosa, teeth affected (87%), gingivitis/gingival enlargement (66.2%), and xerostomia (89.6%). Conclusions: As asthmatics and COPD patients are at a higher risk of developing oral diseases during inhalation therapy, it is necessary to educate patients on proper oral health care and maintenance.

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