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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 29-34

Clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A hospital-based retrospective study

1 Department of Oral Pathology, VS Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Dental Care and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Oral Pathology, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
T Smitha
Department of Oral Pathology, VS Dental College and Hospital, K.R. Road, V.V. Puram, Bengaluru - 560 004, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-8632.202587

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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common neoplasm representing more than 80% of all oral cancer cases. Squamous cell carcinoma is defined as a “malignant epithelial neoplasm exhibiting squamous differentiation as characterized by the formation of keratin and/or the presence of intercellular bridges.” Most epidemiological studies have revealed that heavy smoking and alcohol intake are the most important risk factors for oral cavity cancer. Occupational exposure to carcinogens, infections with certain papilloma viruses, and nutritional status are additional risk factors that have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Poor dental hygiene, accompanied by tooth loss, is another suspected risk factor. Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and clinicopathological features of patients with OSCC along with information on age, sex, locality, habits, sites, and grade of lesion. Methods: This was a retrospective studies (2007–2014) in which data on 301 oral squamous cell carcinoma were investigated. H&E-stained slides were reviewed by the two authors and classified according to the Broder's grading system. Demographic variables related to oral squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed along with the histopathological findings. Statistical analysis on patients' sample was performed using the MedCalc software (Ostend, Belgium) and visualizations were performed using Tableau Public 9.0 (Seattle, Washington). Results: Significant associations between buccal mucosa (BM) as the tumor site and smokeless tobacco consumption, lip cancer tumor and beedi plus cigarette smoking, tumor of floor of the mouth and alcohol consumption, maxillary alveolus (MA) as the tumor site, and tobacco plus alcohol consumption were observed. Tumor of BM and gingivo-BM was more common in women, whereas tumor of floor of the mouth, hard palate, and MA sites was more common in men. Tumor involving the lip and gingivobuccal sites was more common in patients who were >60 years old, whereas the cancers of the tongue and hard palate sites were more common in patients whose age is <40 years. In our study cohort, well-differentiated tumors were predominantly present. Conclusion: Dentists play a key role in the screening, detection, and treatment of oral cancers and they can educate public, more importantly the youth, to bring out changes in the attitude and awareness about oral cancers.

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