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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 209-218

Oral microflora: Varied habitats, niche and their disparity in systemic health

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashalata Gannepalli
Flat No. 101, Nagarjuna Residency, APSRTC Colony, Champapet, Hyderabad - 500 079, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdrntruhs.jdrntruhs_188_20

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The discovery of microbes dates back to the 1700s when Dutchman Antony Van Leeuwenhoek observed his own dental plaque and reported 'little living animalcules prettily moving' further named them as microbes “Dierken”, meaning small lively objects. Since then, the understanding of oral microflora has become profound. Oral microflora is the aggregation of microorganism inhabiting the oral cavity which include bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. The term “microbiome” is defined as the collective genome of microorganisms that reside in the oral cavity. The mouth is an exceedingly complex habitat with its variable niches where microbes settle down and colonize. At present, the connection that has taken a limelight is the link between the oral microbial community and their interactions with the host in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In today's urbanized society, change in lifestyle, diet along with other environmental factors and distinct health habits, there is precise switching in the composition of the oral microbiota with a remarkable increase in the frequency of systemic diseases. Recently there are few advancements made in the field of 16S RNA sequencing and other technologies. Here in this review, we emphasize on the varied habitats and niches that microorganisms colonize along with their disparity in systemic health and the use of currently available methods to determine the oral microflora.

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